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Treatment of Skin Lesions

 Skin lesions are patches or superficial growths over skin surfaces, which do not resemble the normal skin surrounding it. Lesions over skin are generally grouped in 2 categories, namely primary and secondary. The primary skin lesions lead to variation in texture and color of skin and are usually present at birth. Moles or birthmarks are examples of primary skin lesions. However, a few primary lesions are acquired as a result of infectious diseases or allergic reactions.

Warts, acne and psoriasis are primary skin lesions caused by infections and contact dermatitis is a primary skin lesion caused by allergic reaction. Few environmental factors can also lead to primary skin lesions. Secondary skin lesions occur as a consequence of primary skin lesions. They can occur due to the patients manipulating the lesions by picking at or scratching the lesions or due to natural progression of the primary lesions.
Local or systemic corticosteroids can help in the treatment of skin infections, causing itching of skin. Baking soda mixtures, oatmeal baths and calamine lotions are also effective for relieving the itching in this case. Absorbent powders are helpful for reducing moisture content of the infected site and help in prevention of spread of infections.

Patients suffering from keloids need local injections of corticosteroids for treating the raised appearance of it. Ulcers over skin need the usual treatment of skin infections along with clean dressing of the lesion. Pressure dressing may be required for wounds that heal slowly. Surgical treatment of ulcers is needed in some cases, especially in cancerous ulcers. Simple excision of the ulcerated skin under local anesthesia is performed in this case. Laser therapy or freezing, also called cryotherapy, can also help in cancerous skin growths.

Surgical excision of skin lesions can be done on an outpatient basis or day basis and does not need overnight stay of the patient. Though most of these procedures are preformed under local anesthesia, some patients may need general anesthesia. The selection of anesthesia is done based on the location and size of lesion, besides age of patient. After giving the anesthesia, the lesions are excised completely without causing much discomfort or pain to the patient. The lesions can also be shaved down by using surgical blades. Some wounds need suturing after excision. Moles, birth marks and freckles are harmless skin lesion and tend to stay over the skin unless removed deliberately with the help of surgical procedures.

Cancerous skin lesions need a careful and prolonged treatment. Care should be taken to check the spread and growth of these lesions. Effects of treatment of cancerous skin lesions depend upon the stage at which the lesions were detected and overall general health of patient. Localized skin lesions that have not spread to other parts have better prognosis than the lesions spread to other parts. Involvement of many lymph nodes can worsen the outcome of treatment.

It should be noted that most of the skin lesions, cannot be prevented. Some benign skin growths like freckles and moles cannot be avoided. But, few others can be easily prevented. Taking good care of skin can help in preventing and minimizing the skin lesions. Infective skin lesions can be prevented by keeping the skin clean and by using gloves while working in unhygienic conditions. Use of gloves and protective clothes is also advised for people who regularly handle chemicals. Keeping the skin, scalp and nails clean can help in preventing skin lesions. Also, good hydration of skin is very helpful for avoiding skin disorders like dandruff. Personal items like make up brushes or combs should not be shared with others and should be cleaned regularly.

Use of condoms can help in prevention of skin lesions caused by sexually transmitted disorders. Picking at or scratching the skin lesions should be strictly avoided, as it can cause the spread of infections or worsening of skin lesions.  It can also cause scarring or bleeding at the sites. Patients suffering from diabetes need to take proper care of skin as they are more prone to skin infections. Conditions like diabetic foot or non-healing skin ulcers are common in diabetic patients. Control of blood sugar level along with good skin care is very essential for prevention of them. People suffering from disorders causing poor blood circulation also need to take more care of skin as this can cause improper and delayed healing of skin lesions. Use of good sunscreen can be very helpful in preventing and treating several types of skin cancers.

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