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The earth’s mantle and crust are in a fierce battle to the death of supercontinents

A Model of the Earth’s internal structure, and the Volcano in the Timanfaya Interpretation and visitors ‘ centre on the island of Lanzarote, Canary Islands, Spain file picture.
(Photo by: Geography Photos/Universal Images Group via Getty Images

The earth is a warm, gooey center, and it’s a cold, hard exterior, are responsible for the creeping-and sometimes violent movements of the tectonic plates. But now, a new study reveals an intriguing balance of power in the state, the cloak creates supercontinents as the crust tears them apart from each other.

In order to arrive at this conclusion, the process of plate tectonics, scientists have developed a new computer model of the Earth’s crust and mantle, is considered to be a seamless system. After a period of time, approximately 60% of all the tectonic movement along the face of the virtual planet, it was being driven by a rather shallow depth of the forces, in the first 62 mi (100 km) away from the surface. The dark, churning water of the convection of the mantle and drove the rest of us. The mantle was particularly important when the land was pushed together in supercontinents, while the other forces are dominated, when the supercontinents broke into the model.

These are “virtual” the Earth, it is the first model in the “view” of the crust and the mantle, as a whole, a dynamic system, the researchers reported in the Oct. 30 in the journal of the Science of the times. Rather, researchers create models of the thermal-driven convection in the mantle, which is consistent with the observation of the actual coat is pretty good, but it is not the reproduction of the core. The models of the tectonic plates in the crust of the earth was able to predict the real-world observations of how the plates move, but it does not mesh well with the observations of the earth’s crust. It was clear that there was something missing in the way in which the models of the two systems.

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“On convection models for the mantle, but it is not the plate, and plate tectonics, it was good for records, but do not have the mantle of the earth,” he said, Nicolas Coltice, a professor at the Ecole normale Supérieure graduate school, which is part of the PSL, University of Paris. “The whole history of the evolution of the system is a feedback loop between the two of them.”

  The crust plus the mantle

In each class, and a school on the model of the interior of the Earth is a thin layer of crust to ride up to the hot, deformable layer of the earth’s crust. This is a simplified model may give the impression that the crust was just browsing at the clothes, moved this way and that by the inexplicable currents, as shown below.

But that’s not quite right. Earth scientists have long known that the crust and mantle are all part of the same system, they are inevitably connected to each other. It is this insight that has raised the question of whether the forces acting on the surface, such as the subduction of a piece of the crust, among other things, whether the forces deep in the mantle are primarily driving the movement of the plates along the surface of the earth. The answer is, Coltice and his colleagues have found, is that the question is poorly posed. This is because the two layers are intertwined with each other, they both have a contribution to make.

Over the past two decades, Coltice, told Live Science, researchers have been working in the direction of the computer models that are able to represent the crust-mantle interactions are very realistic. At the beginning of the 2000s, some scholars have developed models of heat-driven flow (convection) in the mantle, which, naturally, gave rise to something similar to plate tectonics on the surface. But the models that were labor-intensive, and not a lot of follow-up from Coltice to say.

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Coltice, and his colleagues, has worked for eight years on a new version of the model. Only the execution of the simulation only lasted for 9 months.

The construction of a model of the Earth

Coltice, and his team had to have a “virtual Earth”, complete with realistic parameters, you will find everything from the heat to the size of the tectonic plates, the length of time it takes for supercontinents to form, and out of each other.

There are a number of ways in which the model does not have to be a perfect recreation of the Earth, Coltice to say. For example, the program does not keep track of past rock deformation, so that the rocks that are deformed until they are not prone to deform more easily in the future, in their model, such as would be the case in the real world. However, the model still produced a more realistic-looking, virtual planet, complete with subduction zones, continental drift, oceanic ridges and trenches.

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It turns out that the cloak forces dominate, where the continents converge, the researchers found that it is known as a column of magma called mantle plumes, are not the main reason that the continents are breaking apart. Subduction zones, where one piece of crust is being forced beneath another, are the drivers of continental break-up, Coltice to say. Mantle plumes come into play later on. The Pre-existing rising plume may reach the surface of the rocks that have been weakened by the forces which occur in the subduction zones. And then they insinuate themselves into those of the weaker areas, thus making it more likely for the supercontinent to rift at that location.

In the next step, Coltice and said, bridging the gap between model and real-world observations. In the future, ” he said, and it is a model that can be used for all of the major volcanoes of events to show how plate boundaries form what is the mantle of the earth, which moves around in relation to the rotation of the Earth.

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Originally published on Live Science.

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