Scientists have mapped the entire genome of a 120,000-year-old bone in Western Europe, shedding new light on the history of our closest extinct ancestor. (Credit: SWNS)
Some of the earliest Neanderthal bones have been DNA tested, which turns out to be more than 70 differences, the species became extinct 80,000 years later.
The research suggests that the cave dwellers to migrate to the eastern part of Europe, in Siberia, and indicates that their ancestors may have been from an as-yet-undiscovered group.
Scientists have mapped the entire genome of a 120,000-year-old bone in Western Europe, shedding new light on the history of our closest extinct ancestor.
It is remarkable that the individuals were more genetically similar to their species, which became extinct 40,000 years ago in Siberia, than that of the other 120,000 year-old bones have been found in the area.
The results of this study show a stable background and setting for this group migrated to the east, and the replacement of some of the populations in Eastern Europe and asia.
It’s starting to unravel in the early history of Humanity, which would not otherwise be accessible because of the DNA of 100,000 years ago, it was gone.
Study supervisor, Dr. Kay Prufer, of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, said: “The result is truly extraordinary, and this is in sharp contrast to the turbulent history of the replacements, in a large bowl, mix, and release, which can be seen in the modern human history.”
Her team analyzed soil samples from the upper and the lower jaw bones of a man and a girl, respectively.
They were discovered in the caves of the former, in 1937, in Hohlenstein-Stadel, in Germany and in the last one, in 1993, at Scladina, Belgium.
The two lived at the same time, are so dated that most of the Neanderthals, whose genome have been sequenced to date.
What’s interesting is that the mitochondrial DNA of the man which has been inherited from the mother, it is quite different from that of the late Neanderthals, with more than 70 of the mutations identified.
The study, which was published in the Science Advances suggest early Neanderthals in Europe may have inherited the DNA of an undocumented population.
Lab is a member of Stephane Peyregne, who led the analysis, said: “This is an unknown population, it would represent an isolated Neanderthal populations are still to be discovered, or it may be a potential for a larger population in Africa is related to the modern man.”
Bot, monsters, and the genetic evidence suggests the Neanderthals lived in Europe and Central Asia about 40,000 years ago.
Recent studies have shown that the last of Humanity, all belonging to a single group, they are descended from a common ancestor, which lived from 97,000 a year ago.
But, as a 90,000 year old Neanderthal man was found in the Denisova Cave, in modern-day Mexico, it seems to be more related to the Altai Neanderthal man’, which is found in the same cave, but it was dated to 120,000 years ago.
All of this suggests that there was a beginning to the Neanderthal’s migration to Siberia, to be followed by a subsequent migration to Europe, which will take the place of the older population.
So, Mr. Peyregne, Ph. D. student in evolutionary genetics, and colleagues used a state-of-the-art technology in order to take into account cellular and the present-day human DNA contamination in their water samples.
This turned out to be a man and a woman, the members of the population in Western Europe, which gave rise to all of the identified neanderthal man, with the exception of the Altai Neanderthal.
It will give to the tribes to which they belonged, lived in the West of Europe, together with the Altai people of Siberia and later migrated to the east in order to take their place.
Surprisingly, the researchers also found highly divergent mitochondrial DNA in the human male, revealing a much more complex story that warrants further investigation.
The neanderthals interbred with the ancestors of today’s Europeans when modern humans began spreading out of Africa.
About 2 percent of the DNA of anyone outside Africa today is Neanderthal in origin.
Mr. Peyregne said: “there is very Little known about the population history of the Neanderthals, about the hundreds of thousands of years of their existence.
“We picked up the nuclear genomic sequences from two Neanderthals, one from the Hohlenstein-Stadel Cave of Germany and the other from the Cave of Scladina in Belgium, who lived from around 120,000 years ago.
“In spite of the highly divergent mitochondrial lineage was present in the early humans, both genetically and poet in the later Neanderthals of Europe, to the roughly contemporaneous individual from Siberia.
“This is the Hohlenstein-Stadel and the Scladina people were living at the time of their most recent common ancestor, and later Neanderthal man is set for all later Humanity will trace at least part of their ancestry back to these early European Neanderthals.”
Although, as we have it, the Neanderthals were a separate species, named Homo neanderthalensis.
Neanderthals have had a long evolutionary history. The first known examples of Neanderthal-like fossils are about 430,000 years old.
The most well-known Neanderthals lived between about 130,000 and 40,000 years ago, after all of the physical evidence of them disappears.