to connectVideoAre you at risk for prostate cancer?
Destination Health: Dr. Manny tells us about the risk factors and symptoms of prostate cancer
It is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer in men, right behind skin cancer.
It is usually a slow-growing, and there are life-saving treatments that are available.
However, sometimes the cure can be as prostate cancer and more deadly.
A new study released today from the Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute, based in La Jolla, Calif., the details of how prostate cancer can be turned into an aggressive, life-threatening illness, through the treatment, which is assumed to be in order to save lives.
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Hormones called androgens stimulate prostate cancer cells to grow. The newly developed anti-androgen therapy for prostate cancer are a major step forward in the fight against the disease.
Testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) the primary androgen in men. Lowering androgen levels or stopping them from getting into prostate cancer cells of these cells to shrink or grow more slowly.
However, people who received this treatment were also more likely to develop a deadly, treatment-resistant cancers called neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPC). There is no effective treatment for this type of cancer.
In their study, the researchers analyzed tissue samples from men with NEPC, and prostate cancer cell lines and in a mouse model of the NEPC is made up by the researchers in the field.
They said that they have discovered a molecular “switch” for the activation of this type of cancer and for the treatment of multi-drug resistant after anti-androgen treatment.
The creation of drug-resistant forms of cancer.
NEPC was previously accounted for only 2% to 5% of all diagnosed prostate cancer cases, according to Dr. Maria Diaz-Meco, an associate professor in the Cancer’s Metabolism, and Signaling, Program, Networks, Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute and the lead author of the study.
This is no longer the case. It is now almost 30 percent of the time.
“That’s a lot of things have changed with the new generation of androgen inhibitors, which have been much stronger than in the past,” Diaz-Meco, should be noted.
Androgen treatment have a higher survival rate against the tough-to-treat prostate cancer, where tumors have spread.
“However, these treatments may lead to cancer resistance, as the bacteria develop resistance to antibiotics,” Diaz-Meco said. “The frequency of these pancreatic endocrine tumors after targeted treatment, which is now on a much higher level.”
NEPC is undetectable by the PSA test
The PSA test is a blood test used to screen for prostate cancer. PSA is a protein produced by both cancerous and noncancerous tissue in the prostate gland.
The test can detect high levels of PSA that may indicate prostate cancer, but treatment-resistant forms of cancer, it may occur that they are detected.
“The problem is, with this new, multi-drug resistant cancer cells is that they are androgen indifferent), or androgen-independent, and that is the reason, why the treatments stop working, and why aren’t they increasing PSA levels,” said Diaz-Meco.
Undetected, the cancer will eventually move on to other areas, most commonly the liver, lungs, and bones.
A surprising discovery
Although there is no cure for the NEPC, Diaz-Meco’s research could eventually lead to new treatment options.
She emphasizes that her focus is now on finding a way to “wake up in a certain way, and the androgen receptor pathway to NEPC tumors more detectable, and treatable.
“Our first observation of work by a kinase (an enzyme that is required for certain cell processes, the so-called “atypical” protein kinase C, has been just amazing,” she said. “The tumors were completely due to the lack of the presence of these proteins; most tumors show a high amounts of this kinase.”
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They believe that this discovery could lead to new treatments, which are able to ensure that this type of cancer, are vulnerable to anti-androgen therapy.
Early detection is the best defense
“In general, for the detection of prostate cancer, there are two main factors,” said Dr. Sven Wenske, doctor, and assistant professor of psychiatry at the Columbia University Irving Medical Center in New York city. “It Is the basis of ethnicity. For example, African-American males have a significantly higher risk of developing prostate cancer than white men. The other is to have a family history of prostate cancer, especially father or paternal uncle, grandfather, or brothers, especially when the disease is in the family itself, at a younger age.”
However, there is nothing a person can do to prevent prostate cancer,” Wenske told healthline. “Early detection is the key. And while there’s been a lot of controversy over the use of PSA as a prostate cancer screening markers, the patients, especially those with a higher level of risk, it should certainly be on the look out for a doctor that will perform an “intelligent” screening for prostate cancer.”
Intelligent screening can include testing for biomarkers in addition to PSA, to improve the screening accuracy.
Wenske said that this is because “the PSA can be influenced by many factors, in other words, instead of looking at the PSA as a number, but it shows that the risk of cancer across a continuum. For instance, in some men with PSA levels less than 4 ng/ml, that would be abnormal, but patients with a PSA greater than 4 ng/ml would be acceptable.”
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He went on to explain that additional testing may be helpful in determining who should undergo a prostate MRI followed by prostate biopsy, in order to know which patient will have significant prostate cancer that is to be dealt with.
“If localised prostate cancer is detected and treated, the success has been very good,” Wenske said.
The bottom line
Prostate cancer, when caught early, can be cured. A powerful new treatment of anti-androgen therapy will not stop the growth of tumor, and even shrink them.
However, this is not the same as therapy of treatment-resistant prostate cancer that will spread.
A new study has shown that this type of cancer is resistant to. It can point the way to new anti-androgen treatments is that the disease is manageable once again.
This article was published for the first time HealthLine.com.