Astronomers find of fossils of the early universe filled up in the Milky way in the ardennes

New research shows that a group of stars HP1 (shown here by Chile at the Gemini South telescope) contain some of the oldest stars in the Milky way, dating back to about 12.8 billion years old.
(Gemini Observatory/AURA/NSF; composite image produced by Mattia Libralato of the Space Telescope Science Institute)

Astronomers stared into the dim bulge of the Milky way and found some of the oldest known stars in the universe.

In a study published in the April 2019 at the latest issue of the journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, researchers analyzed a cluster of old, faint stars called HP1, located approximately 21,500 light-years away from the Earth in the bowels of our galaxy’s central bulge . With the help of observations from Chile, the Gemini South telescope, and archival data from the Hubble space telescope, the researchers calculated the age of the star about 12.8 billion years old — making it one of the oldest stars ever discovered in the Milky way or the universe at large.

“These are also some of the oldest stars we see everywhere,” study co-author Stefano Souza, a phd candidate at the University of São Paulo, Brazil, said in a statement. [15 Unforgettable Images of the Stars]

The Milky way’s bulge — a rounded, 10,000 light-years wide region of stars and dust popping out of the galaxy’s spiral disc — thought to contain some of the oldest stars in the milky way.

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P revious studies have tried to prove that the old stars were hiding in the Milky way in the ardennes by the study of HP1 and other nearby clusters. But Souza and his colleagues ‘analysis of the problem and with an unprecedented resolution, thanks to an imaging technique called adaptive optics — essentially, a method that corrects photos of the space for light distortions caused by the atmosphere of the Earth.

By combining these ultra-high-definition observations and review of archival images of the Hubble telescope, the team calculated the distance to the Earth for even the weakest, most fabric-covered stars in HP1. These distances helped the team to calculate each star’s brightness. The intensity and color of each star is the light, in turn, reveals the star type, or it was a dwarf or a giant, for example, or the broadcast many of the elements heavier than hydrogen and helium.

The weight of a star elements — or “metallicity” — is crucial information for scientists who study aging of the celestial bodies. Researchers suspect that the universe’s first stars formed from the original clouds of pure hydrogen gas. The universe is the first helium atoms are thought to arise from the nuclear reactions in the heart of the old stars.. Eventually, as more and more stars were born, each different element currently known to man exploded into existence.

Stars that elements heavier than hydrogen and helium are therefore considered to be relatively young in the cosmic scheme of things. So, when the Twins researchers saw that the star of HP1 were extremely light on heavy elements, they knew they had an old cluster in the visor.

The team calculated that the star likely date for the first billion years of the universe’s life — making them roughly 12.8 billion years old.

“HP 1 is one of the surviving members of the fundamental building blocks that fitted our galaxy inner bulge,” lead study author Leandro Kerber of the University of São Paulo, Brazil State University of Santa Cruz, said in the statement.

The fact that the Milky way hides old stars in her bulging belly: the area is the perfect location for the study of our milky way galaxy, is a difficult childhood.

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Originally published on the Science.

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