It gives a picture of how galaxy-sized bubbles, and push the gas around the Perseus cluster. The ‘ X ‘ in the middle of the figure shows the location of the supermassive black hole at its center. (Credit: Li, et al.)
Supermassive black holes at the hearts of galaxies and can emit a warm, choppy waves from the gas to the space, keeping to the clusters of the life with their warmth.
And, for the first time, astrophysicists believe they have seen her daughter in action.
Peer into a vast galaxy cluster, and you can see the hot gas swirling into the core, filling the space between the stars and the galaxies. However, there is a mystery about this type of gas. How does it stay so hot? Simple models suggest that it should be losing energy much more quickly than is currently the case, and that the force of gravity is beginning to bind the whole of the cloud, to the stars within a radius of about a billion years to form. The stars would, in turn, will burn out and the galaxy was going to die with them. Astrophysicists refer to this as a process of “catastrophic cooling.” However, this does not happen.
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It turns out that, in 2005, the researchers found a partial explanation as to why not. They found that the formation of bubbles in dense gas clouds, and giant holes in the space — some even as big as the Milky way. These giant bubbles were gone from the extreme of black holes in the galactic centers, and in turn, the researchers said, seemed to be to the prevention of catastrophic cooling.
However, the question remained: what this means is that the energy transfer in the gas around the bubbles? In a paper published on the arXiv database, Nov. 18 (the paper has not yet gone through the formal peer-review process, researchers have reported evidence of air turbulence around the bubbles: swirls and eddies that spin off smaller swirls and eddies, which is a spin-off, the smaller the curls still in place. After a period of time, the theory is that the chaotic behavior is achieved for the micro-level, where it dissipates as heat.
“You have the picture of the bubble like a spoon stirring the hot tea,” the study’s lead author, Yuan Li, an astrophysicist at the University of California, Berkeley, told Science.
The scoop allows for a “bulk move” of the coffee, pull out a spoon, and you will feel less turbulence in the liquid, which will make it even smaller eddies. When the vertebrae stop moving, it’s because their energy is converted into heat, ” she said. In a cup on the table, and the heating system is not really dramatic, you would struggle to get the water to be boiling, just the water. However, the energy of the bubbles moving through space, it is the most direct way possible, and it seems as if the turbulence puts a large part of the kinetic energy to heat it up.
Li and her co-authors, none of the new observations is the atmospheric turbulence. Instead, she looked at the publicly available data of the galaxy clusters Perseus, Abell 2597, and a Virgin.
Filaments of cooler gas in parts of the clouds in the centers of these systems, Li said. This is a very accurate, high-resolution data allowed for Li to make a map of the speed of the gas at any point in the move, and in what direction.
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The heat map showed a distinct pattern of turbulence. “In a turbulence mode, there is a great disturbance in the creation of small eddies of even smaller vortices. You’ve got a beautiful water fall,” Li said.
The “great waterfall” was published in each of the cluster’s center.
“I didn’t expect it, no-one expected it,” she said.
Even the smallest eddies are here, on an unimaginable scale, it is big enough to swallow our solar system. In fact, Li said, they take place in any number of closed “rubbish bins are full of galaxies.” Brian McNamara, lead author on the 2005 Nature paper that first suggested that the bubbles may be of global warming gases, he said, was the new finding is exciting, but I had reservations.
“This is all very interesting. However, it is not convincing, in my opinion. I’m not quite sure,” McNamara told Live Science. McNamara, who is also the chairman of the Department of Physics and Astronomy at canada’s University of Waterloo, said the main problem with it is that the floods, Li and his colleagues are not at all consistent with what would be expected from turbulence alone. That the different effects could be at work, and the authors of the study wrote that, or perhaps there is some unknown physics related to the behavior of the turbulence in these extreme conditions.
McNamara also wondered whether the researchers had fully disentangled the effects of different types of motions in the sun’s rays from the actual turmoil.
He also pointed out that some researchers suspect of turbulence, in fact, the cooling of the gas is greater than that in the heat of it.
Having said that, he added, this is a very good paper with many good researchers.
“I think that there is more work to be done.”
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Originally published on Live Science.